The Art of Observation
"Even when helping and serving the children, she (the teacher) must not cease to observe them, because the birth of concentration in a child is as delicate a phenomenon as the bursting of a bud into bloom."
Recently I observed something marvelous in a primary classroom. A child of almost three years was happily concentrating on using a crumber to sweep lentils into the masking tape square on her tray. As she practiced, lentils spilled all over the table and floor. The teachers observing the child noted the Montessori principles in action: a child concentrating and repeating an activity. They did not interrupt or ask her to clean up the spilled lentils. Eventually an older child went over and showed the younger one how to use the broom and dustpan to clean up.
Some teachers might have been tempted to intervene. It sometimes takes a lot of self-control to stop the impulses of wanting to help or be in control. But we can learn to trust the children, especially if we take the time to really observe and understand them.
How Montessori Learned to Observe
Maria Montessori was a scientist and a medical doctor, trained in making careful observations of phenomena. She applied those observation skills to children, much like an anthropologist or botanist, who observes the smallest details. In her first assignment as a doctor, Montessori watched developmentally challenged children in a bare room playing with crumbs on the floor because they had nothing else to manipulate or stimulate their senses. She was inspired to begin making educational materials and, through a process of trial and error, refined the materials based on her scientific observations of children using them.
The Tool of Observation
Observation is an integral and ongoing part of a Montessori teacher's work. Observing without judgment is one of the most vital teaching tools we have to "follow the child," recognize her needs, and assist her in finding her strengths and capabilities. Observation is a critical component of lesson planning and classroom management. When the teacher observes that a student has mastered a concept or skill, she can introduce new lessons.
There's much more to the art of observing than recording the skills children have mastered. For example, we try to detect what Montessori called "sensitive periods" in the child's development, as well as heightened interest in music, art, or nature. We need to be knowledgeable about child development in order to have insight about children's behavior, social interactions, and learning styles. The teacher who is gifted in the science of observation can help children overcome difficulties and redirect their interest when necessary.
Making Time to Observe
Your first attempts at observing may be very short if children are settling into the Montessori classroom and still developing concentration. You may only have a few moments to scan the classroom while you're working with a child, or to reflect on how a lesson is going as you're giving it. When you are able to step back to observe, you encourage children to rely more on each other, as older children step forward to be role models. Notice how long you can observe without being interrupted.
If there are several adults in the classroom, you can take turns so that every day someone has an uninterrupted block of time (perhaps 20 minutes or longer) to simply observe. Sometimes it's helpful for children to know that if a teacher is sitting in a special chair or standing in a certain place, they are observing and should not be interrupted.
With Fresh Eyes
If the teacher is always moving from one child to another, giving lesson after lesson, she's probably missing some important social and physical cues from the children. It's important to step back, slow down, and observe the children and the environment with fresh eyes. You may realize that it's time for another lesson on how to walk around rugs. You might be pleased to realize that the children really do settle down and concentrate more deeply after the period Montessori called "false fatigue."
Record Your Observations
Sometimes you may want to observe one child for an extended period of time. Other times you may be wondering about a classroom dynamic or issue. While observing and taking notes, some helpful questions to ask about the class and the children include:
Use Your Observations
Read over your notes with an open mind, reflecting on how to improve the classroom or give a particular child what he needs. Perhaps the reading corner has too many books and is overwhelming, or it's time for new activities in Practical Life. You might realize that a child's concentration was interrupted, or decide that Grace and Courtesy lessons would help create more peace in the community.
Observing on a regular basis can be very validating as you become more conscious of the growth and progress the children are making from week to week. You may notice quiet, sacred moments you might otherwise have missed, such as one child comforting another, or a child softly singing to the classroom animal. One of the most gratifying experiences as a Montessori teacher is to be able to witness the peaceful and happy hum of the "children's house" because, as Montessori put it, "the children are now working as if I did not exist."
"She [the teacher] observes in order to recognize the child who has attained the power to concentrate and to admire the glorious rebirth of his spirit."
—by Irene Baker, MEd, Montessori Educational Consultant at Montessori Services. She holds both primary (ages 3-6) and elementary (ages 6-12) Montessori certifications and has taught at all three levels. For over 15 years, she has served as a Montessori teacher-trainer for both primary and elementary levels and has presented workshops for teachers at schools and AMS national conferences. Her work with both students and teachers is infused with the knowledge she has gained from her passions: history, social justice, non-violent (compassionate) communication, nature, meditation, music, and poetry.
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Praise and Punishment
"Eventually we gave up either punishing or rewarding the children."
It's a new year and many of us make resolutions. As parents, in spite of our best intentions, we sometimes get stuck in patterns that are no longer working or may not be the most beneficial for our children. What are some new ways to deal with the normal day-to-day challenges of being a parent?
Re-Thinking Some Common Practices
No one is really taught how to parent. We do what our parents did, or the direct opposite. Some practices enter the mainstream and are implemented by parents without much thought.
How often do you use the phrase "Good job"? Do you use a "time-out" when your child is challenging your patience? Changing some of these rote responses can make a huge difference for children and parents alike. We can communicate to children in ways that help them feel more secure and independent.
Unearned and Unnecessary Praise
The "good job" comment which seems to roll off the tongues of parents, teachers, and by-standers is said with good intentions, but gives very little acknowledgement of what went into accomplishing the "job." Similar to every child getting a trophy whether the team wins or loses, this empty praise may discourage children from trying new activities at which they might fail. They also may get an inflated sense of self-importance and entitlement.
The adult becomes the judge, and motivation becomes external rather than internal. This "conditional parenting" teaches children to behave in a certain way in order to be loved. It becomes another method of control, just like punishment.
It's more meaningful to have adults understand a child's feelings and communicate appreciation of the effort and natural hard work involved in learning. Practice, trial and error, and persistence in the face of failure help your child's brain develop.
Alternatives to false praise:
Punishment or Setting Limits
In The Discovery of the Child Maria Montessori says, "To tell a child: 'Stand still like me!' does not enlighten him." She explains that such a demand is both physically and mentally impossible for a "still growing individual." What may appear obvious and understandable for adults is not always true for a child.
Some time ago, as a reasonable option to corporal or demeaning punishments, the "time-out" method became the discipline of choice. This prevalent form of discipline makes a child experience a feeling of rejection and learn that love will be withdrawn if she does not conform to our wishes.
Misbehaving is often a call for help or some added adult encouragement and understanding. Helping your child verbalize feelings often is enough for her to continue to problem solve. Sometimes physical holding is necessary to stop a tantrum and help a child learn to self-soothe.
Discipline is about teaching, not punishing. Rather than exclude a child, we want to encourage the development of empathy and insight. We want to set clear limits while helping empower children to understand and collaborate with us so that respect flows in both directions.
Changing Time-Out to Time-In
We want to convey love and respect, letting children know it is the behavior we want to change, not the child. "Time-in" means we know where the child is developmentally and can intervene before the child seriously misbehaves. If you stay calm and spend "time-in" with your child, both of you will feel more secure and in control.
These ideas may help:
Look to the Child
What are reasonable expectations? Psychologist Madeline Levine reminds us that "the happiest, most successful children have parents who do not do for them what they are capable of doing." This leads to independence and a strong sense of self-esteem. We need to stand back while they figure out things on their own. We as parents can give up judging ourselves when our children don't live up to our expectations. We can instill positive values and encourage persistence while watching our children learn from the normal challenges in life.
"No one who has ever done anything really great or successful has ever done it simply because he was attracted by what we call a 'reward' or by the fear of what we call a 'punishment.'"
—by Jane M. Jacobs, M.A., Montessori Educational Consultant at Montessori Services. She is a trained primary Montessori directress and also a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. She has taught children aged 2 to 7 years in Montessori schools, Headstart, and also in a preschool for children with developmental challenges. In her counseling practice, she helps individuals, couples, and families.
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